Thus Spoke Zarathustra (Clearscan)

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Tel: 07 S. Prospect Tel: 08 W. Our new Lamp Saver will greatly extend the life of those expensive downlights and spotlights. Details page Construction begins on page See page for further details. Find out by building this VHF Wattmeter. E Aust. Phone: 02 Telex: AA Facsimile: Representative: Norman Palmer. Phone: 03 Representative: John Oliver, B. Phone: 08 Representative: Dane Hanson. Brisbane: 26 Chermside Street, Newstead, Old Phone: 07 Representative: Bernie Summers. Phone: 09 Representative: Jim Wells. PO Box Telex: NZ, Telephone: 79 Distributed by Gordon and Gotch Limited, Sydney.

Registered by Australia Post — publication No. ISSN Letters to the editor An exploding picture tube? I would like to point out that, in a strict technical sense, picture tubes do not explode see EA, Letters, April When a fault occurs, the glass and all parts of the tube burst inwards. Note that more modern picture tubes, whether black and white or colour, have a bonded safety glass as part of the tube. The electron gun buried itself into the wall a good 2.

Leigh, Oxford Park, Qld. Editor: We apologise for the error. The correct number for the compact disc Piano Works, Vol. Volume 6 of these works is also listed incorrectly. The correct listing is Decca Servicing grade alignment tapes are available, but their price is out of the reach of many of your readers. Emery, Bullcreek, WA. He also gave N.

In reality, the kit suppliers position is even more complicated. I am sure that Mr Williams would not object if I took the time to further explain to N. This time roughly equates to the period before This was considered quite satisfactory at the time, particularly as there was no other viable alternative. Then along came the Japanese.

The attack by the Japanese on world car markets is well documented and well known. What is not as well known is the profound effect they have had in other areas — in this case the home constructor. From the early 70s the Japanese began to provide the world with low- cost, medium-performance amateur radio equipment, hifi gear, and other consumer electronic products. Why is this so? The bulk of the credit for this in Australia must go to the electronics magazines.

No longer was it good enough for a magazine to design a project that was cheap to build and offered astonishing performance. Fortunately, the magazines recognised this. This amplifier project had great performance figures at the time but the big feature was the looks! At the time it looked great — but the only way to get the good finish was to do what the Japanese did: mass produce. It was impossible for the backyard constructor to achieve that finish himself. Over 10, kits were produced by the marketing genius, Dick Smith.

He coined a famous line to describe the Continued on page The subject is whether or not kitset suppliers should make specialised parts available to constructors instead of locking them into kits. A long letter from Jaycar Electronics, beginning on the opposite page, puts a case for the kitset suppliers and we readily admit that it has considerable merit. All the same, we recognise that some constructors do wish to go it alone, improvising some of the parts themselves, perhaps making their own metalwork, using some parts they already have and so on. And there may be quite a few of these rugged individuals still soldiering on.

But there is a related subject which is also troubling would-be constructors: hard-to-get parts for projects that are old. These projects may not have been made available in kit form when first published or the kit may have been discontinued after several years when the kitset supplier judged that sales no longer justified it or, and here lies the rub, perhaps one of the key parts has become unavailable. From time to time we receive irate letters from readers complaining that they have invested in most of the parts for a certain kit and then found that a key part was no longer available.

They are considerably frustrated and hence the whole effort has been for naught. Sometimes a constructor will decide to build a project soon after it is published and begins to gather the bits and pieces together but is then distracted and the parts lie on the shelf for years. Later on, he will decide to finish the project and then be stymied because some of the remaining parts are once again unavailable.

The point of this long-winded essay is some friendly advice to would-be constructors. If you decide to build a project from scratch rather than from a kit, do not spend any money until you have made sure you can buy the key parts. They are usually not hard to identify, being special modules or transformers, unusual wirewound or multi-turn potentiometers, special purpose integrated circuits and so on. And the older the kit is, the more important it is to investigate the availability of the key parts. Because of packaging problems, it has not been included. It will sell at around half the price of its nearest competitor.

The auto-pilot system also eliminates the need for troublesome programming, guidelines and tapes while rechargeable batteries eliminate the need for power cords.

A Book for All and None

The robot also has a touch sensor that stops it as soon as contact is made with an obstacle. Dimensions are 1. The robot is capable of three types of cleaning. The second function combines vacuuming and then dry-mopping. Finally, it can pick up loose dust through vacuuming alone. And the price of all this efficiency? Even so, the benefits to the economy have not yet emerged.

The Perth show has built a reputation over the years as the biggest and best in Australia. This year, the show is bigger than ever with some Special trade seminars have been organised and the show will be heavily promoted in the media. Phone 09 Nor does it need large amounts of floor area. One outcome of the attempted fiddle is likely to be a nationwide code of practice to regulate use of the computer. In California, where such diesel systems are quite commonplace, the kW machine has been an immediate success.

Now US- made radio tracking collars are to be used to find out something about their movements and their effects on the environment. The American-made camel collars are no ordinary collars.

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According to Professor Grigg, camels were first brought into Australia in for transport in the interior. More were brought in during the s and, in the 25 years that followed, some 10, were imported. In fact, the population is so fit and healthy that Australian feral camels have for some time been exported to the Middle East where they are highly prized for racing and breeding. The deal involved Sinclair selling the brand name, intellectual property rights and the right to manufacture and sell all existing and future Sinclair Research products.

And you could take advantage of it. The line-up starts with the micro series, ideal for use in POS terminals, ticket printers, measuring devices and portable computers. The series are compact and fast, with a capacity of up to 31 characters per line at 2.

The series offer even higher performance and extraordinarily long life, making them ideal for use wherever hard copies of transactions are needed in high volume. EPSON The Drive for Success Epson has harnessed its unmatched production engineering capability to produce a range of drivers that are smaller, and run cooler, longer, more reliably, and more accurately on much less energy than competitive products. The right choice To stay in front in the OEM business, only the best quality components are good enough. For more information, phone Epson Sydney 02 or write for free brochure.

The Soviets could employ countermeasures ranging from fast-burn rockets to space mines and powerful X-ray lasers. It is the mids. Intruders will be attacked without warning. In their view, defense weapons located in space are too vulnerable, and efforts to protect them could lead to war.

A defensive system must be able to defend itself: A system that could not withstand an attack aimed against it could only be used by a nation that struck first. You cannot tolerate that. James Abrahamson, director of SDI. Survivability of space-based weapons is crucial to the SDI concept. All space- based weapons proposed for boost- phase intercept can be attacked. There are a number of ways to attack space-based weapons. In November , President Dwight D. Johnson to the United Nations to emphasize American views that space could not be subject to any nation. In recent years, the US has opposed efforts by nations lying along the equator to lay claims to portions of the equatorial geosynchronous orbit.

The latter course would be exceedingly difficult at best. Under international law, it is legal for any satellite to move close to another. Space, like the high seas, is considered international territory. During peacetime, such a space mine would just tag along nearby. Galosh is a fast-acceleration, nuclear-tipped missile that burns out in 30 seconds. Galosh is not the only defensive weapon that can be turned against the defence. X-rays from the detonating bomb cause the rods to emit X-rays in a directed beam along their length just before they are vaporized.

Such a weapon, if it can be developed, could deliver a fatal blow to a battle station at many thousands of kilometres.

The ARCH Project

In the same report. The same would, of course, be true for US weapons. In either case, the first strike could be delivered at nearly the speed of light, with no forewarning or opportunity for retaliation. Let the mine follow the decoy. Another problem with decoying the battle stations is the amount of time available to the offense. Light balloons will move but not those tethered to heavy warheads. He admits similar means might be used to detect decoys of defensive satellites. We have to develop electronics that are much, much harder. But nuclear-armed space mines could defeat armour by moving closer.

If decoys and armour are insufficient, then what can be done about a Soviet space mine that slowly moved in and stayed close to a US battle station? Robert Jastrow, an astronomer and vocal supporter of SDI agrees. If they get within so many miles of us, we shoot them down. Worden doubts it. We will shoot back. This is our policy today. John B. Foley of the Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Navy. But the rules of engagement are only for surface ships anyway. If a sub got close to one of our aircraft carriers, we would track it with sonar, but we would not attack it. They have space assets like early-warning satellites they want to maintain anyway.

Carter points out. If a minimum distance of, say, 10km is to be maintained around all satellites and their decoys , Soviet satellites would have to be excluded Outstanding Performance Choose an approved soldering iron that best suits your needs. Skyswitch is a self-contained communications systems that uses the latest satellite technology, previously available only on large expensive networks. The major advantages of Skyswitch over conventional satellite systems is its ability to provide the same level of service with 30 to 40 percent fewer lines.

Skyswitch offers an economical easily installable integrated voice and data communications system. It has modular design, which gives you easy network refiguration and expansion capability and the same time, lowers your incremental installation costs and reduces your financial risk. Box , Clifton Hill, Vic.

Nonetheless, Yonas feels agreement is possible. This is not the only problem with keep-out zones. The X-ray laser, if such a device can be built, would negate such zones. In addition, the X-ray laser would become vulnerable once launched. Still worse, X-ray lasers accompanying a first strike could disrupt a retaliatory attack. But, in his view, this threat is all the more reason for us to acquire the weapon.

If we do something and they have it, we will be helpless, Russia will rule the world. The side with the better gun — and a better position to fire it — will be ahead. There simply would be no time for human intervention. Everything would be controlled by computers. One false move by either side could trigger a war. Besides, you are talking about a totally obsolete system. A pop-up weapon may not have to use nuclear weapons.

In one version of a laser defence, the laser itself is located on the ground in the US. These mirrors relay beams shot from the ground to fighting mirrors popped-up near the Soviet Union, which in turn focus the beams on the ICBMs as they rise over the horizon. Such a system would avoid having to launch nuclear weapons by computer, as with the X-ray laser. For one thing, the feasibility of shooting 5-metre mirrors into space on seconds notice is not at all certain.

Yellow Light. Yet such was the state of the world just 20 years ago. Today, the EDUC-8 is less powerful than any pocket calculator yet it is not quite twelve years since it was a state- of-the-art small computer and one of the first ever described for home construction. I wanted to find out something about machine code programming and a machine as simple as EDUC-8 should have spelled out the basics. In detail, I wanted to find out when microcomputers first made their appearance and incidentally to note some of the electronic milestones that paralleled the micro. Remember, was only 22 years ago — within the lifetime of some people who are still students today.

Can you imagine a student without his pocket calculator? But going back to , the magazine did carry an advertisement for a kind of minicomputer, and a home built one at that. Twenty years ago, large scale integrated circuits were unthought of. In one of the first projects to make extensive use of integrated circuits appeared. The schematic looks quite archaic today but it was a sign of things to come.

Still, old habits die hard and the same issue carried a project utilising the old valve technology — the 3-inch audio oscilloscope. There was four channel audio, for instance, which was having a very mixed reception. And colour TV was not all that far away. In the professional computer field, second generation machines were replacing the older, 60s models and disposal stores were selling computer panels to hobbyists. But still nothing on micros.

In the July edition there was an extensive article on computers in schools with the emphasis on a Hewlett Packard small professional machine, not on micros. The idea of complex electronic devices in the home environment seemed quite alien to designers and marketers alike. There was no slow motion on this machine, but it was a pointer to the shape of things to come.

But still no micros. By the time we got to mid, the pages of EA were beginning to look like they do today. In the News Highlights section there was a report that Philips were to market their VLP laser videodisc for home use, having signed an agreement with MCA Universal who were to supply the films to fuel the system. Philips and the video pundits of those days had decided that the public wanted video replay but not necessarily video recording facilities. The videodisc seemed to be the way to go. The laser disc survived the battle, but the public had other ideas about its commercial success.

When VHS and Beta VCRs were available, with 3-hour playing times, the public showed that they wanted record as well as replay facilities. This idea has really taken off and one day the silver disc will replace the black disc completely. Now, back to the micro. And finally it arrived. It could be used in all kinds of controller situations and made an ideal starter for experimental packs. In the same edition Dick Smith was advertising microprocessor chips, memory chips, keyboards etc, and the home computer was away.

I had scanned through a hundred copies of the magazine, every fourth or fifth one in considerable detail. While I may have missed a few points, the broad chronology is accurate. It is only ten years since technology made possible the home computer. Microcomputers have been delivered in all sorts of packages, from bare boards to self contained units with every accessory built in for user convenience.

How times have changed. I wish I had access to the next 20 years of Electronics Australia. I would like to look forward as I have just looked backward. I wonder what I might find from such an exercise. Donald Michie Edinburgh EA. March , page Private Bag No. Full overload Is provided. Double sided Density No AC power required 3ms track to track. Double sided, double density. XI Female to female: Cat. Disk Controller Card. Multifunction Card. All prices 10 disk boxes! Intricate PCB s. Does it seem that you are always having to replace expensive spotlights, ornamental lamps or bulbs in inaccessible places?

The solution to these problems is the Lamp Saver which will greatly extend the life of any VAC incandescent lamp. For all other areas of the home, the trend to incandescent lighting has been overwhelming and so now there are a multitude of special purpose light fittings designed, often as not, to take special lamps. The most popular of these are the spotlight and downlight fittings which take Edison-screw lamps rated at around 75 to watts. As a result, the lamps overheat and fail prematurely. If you have several of these fittings in your home you can count yourself lucky if you do not have to replace each of these lamps several times a year.

It can add up to quite a lot of money over a period. So that is the purpose of the Lamp Saver; to protect and extend the life of these more expensive lamps. At around 60 cents for an ordinary light bulb, it would be hard to justify the cost of the Lamp Saver. So what is the Lamp Saver? In reality, the filament resistance when measured by a multimeter is likely to be around 50ft or less. When power is first applied to the lamp, the fact that its filament is cold means that a very high surge current will flow until the filament heats up. This initial surge current will be ten to 15 times the normal operating current and flows for the first ten milliseconds or so after switch-on.

So next time you hear the dreaded The circuit board assembly is mounted on the back of a standard switch plate.

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By letting the initial voltage across the filament build up gradually over half a second or so, there will be virtually no switch-on surge and no high filament stresses. Circuit description The circuit is similar in principle to a typical light dimmer. It uses a phase controlled Triac to control the voltage applied to the lamp. A Triac controls the amount of power it feeds to its load by turning on earlier or later in each mains half cycle.

Thus Spake Zarathustra - audiobook - Friedrich Nietzsche - Midwinter Update

And when it turns on, it stays on until the voltage across it control the voltage applied to the lamp. The general circuit concept of the Lamp Saver is depicted in Fig. It works in the following way. A clipped version of the mains waveform from across the back-to-back zener diodes is used to charge the 0. At this point the SBS breaks down to a low resistance and delivers a pulse of current via the 0. These work as follows. Consider that the breakover voltage of the 2N SBS is reached when the voltage across it, ie, between its A1 and A2 terminals, is more than about 10V.

But note that the A2 end of the SBS is connected to the gate via a 0. Now, the breakover condition can only exist when the timing capacitor charge exceeds the divider voltage by 10V. With correct component selection, the later firing angle will just compensate for the increased voltage. The power delivered to the load will be constant. Ideally, this voltage limited effect should not interfere with power delivery to the load at all until VAC is reached.

This would have the effect of initially allowing the Triac to fire only late in each half cycle and thus severely limit the power delivered to the lamp. Thus the lamp filament would be protected against initial surge current. We now refer to the full circuit diagram of the Lamp Saver. Instead of having two zener diodes D1 and D2 back to back in the circuit to clip the mains voltage we have used a bridge rectifier diodes D1 to D4 and a single 18V zener diode D5. It works out to be around 0. At the first instant after switch on, Ql is biased fully on via the IjulF capacitor.

Ql virtually shorts the lOkft charging resistor R2 to the Neutral line, via the diode bridge. So the 0. Then the IjulF capacitor begins to charge which has the effect of turning Ql off, which allows the voltage across zener D5 to rise to the full 18V. Most importantly, the massive switch on surge current in the filament is avoided.

Because the Lamp Saver is a Triac circuit which chops up the mains waveform, its output voltage can only be measured in terms of RMS values. For this reason, we used a Fluke to plot the performance indicated in Fig. Lamp derating We mentioned above the benefit of running incandescent lamps at slightly below their nominal voltage rating to get a big increase in life. In this circuit, this occurs naturally because the Triac cannot turn on exactly at the beginning of each AC half-cycle. Our circuit progressively reduces the voltage so that at VAC there is actually less voltage across the lamp than with VAC input.

Maximum lamp load for the circuit as presented is watts which should be more than adequate for most domestic applications. Construction All of the circuit components mount on a PCB measuring 41 x 69mm and coded 86pc5. Above: actual-size artwork for the PC board. Ready-etched boards are available from parts retailers. Take care with mains wiring. It is most convenient to mount all of the small components, such as resistors and diodes, first. The toroidal inductor is prepared by winding on 37 turns of 0. The turns should be made tightly with each one touching the next on the inside of the core.

When the winding is complete, use a razor blade to clean the enamel from the two ends of the winding and tin them ready for soldering into the board. The inductor is held in place with a loop of wire through the PCB. Two pads are provided on the PCB for this purpose — solder one end of the loop to a pad, pass the other end through the toroid and spare PCB hole and pull the loop tight. Solder the free end to the pad. Installation Only one wiring change will have to be made to a normal switch installation. This involves the wire from the switch to the lamp.

Of the three main terminals, only two are used in a typical installation. The mains active wire is connected to one of these terminals and the lamp to the other. The other terminal active connects to the switch. A short insulated link must be used here. F metallised polyester greencap 1 0.


Demonstrations available. Ring for details. Full service and changeover available from our new Computer Service Centre. Repairs to Disc Drives a speciality. But one of our correspondents is spitting chips figuratively about what he considers to be misinformation promulgated by a number of well known computer companies. Being a freelance professional writer, he is well able to explain the reason for the chip on his shoulder. To date, they haven t even replied. My argument is as follows: I A high level of static charge is not, by itself, a problem. But houses are often incorrectly wired and power supplies get faulty.

It's a bit like casual handling of a rifle or shotgun — its perfectly all right as long as it's unloaded. Too many Australian houses are wired up with the switch in the neutral lead , and there are too many Taiwanese fans with power switches which effectively reverse the polarity of the plug. In my experience , many of these fans don't have a reliable earth connection anyway.

I'd like to stir this up if I can. I'm sure that I am right but I'd be interested to hear your or any contrary views. Stewart Fist. The discussion served to underline the fact that the build-up of such charges varies enormously with the prevailing level of humidity in the atmosphere. Stewart F. What do I think? Frankly, my own reaction is to be less than enthusiastic about either point of view. Please, not a spade connector pushed into a power point.

During service procedures, the mains cord would be plugged into the wall socket only when the computer needed to be powered up. To provide this kind of safeguard should not pose any great problem and, to me, it makes a lot more sense than the half-measures previously mentioned.

Maybe Stewart F. Phone 02 Promark can provide data but actual distribution is being arranged through selected suppliers. The Practical Way! We can train you at home in a simple, practical and interesting way. New Career? New Hobby? He had also taken note of the signal strength reaching the receivers in typical situations and this proved to be a most revealing exercise. Benalla, Vic. The above letter, reflecting the voice of practical experience, tends to support our own observations in the February issue.

So also does a letter from A. If it is to radiate an effective signal, it should be as uncluttered as possible, preferably not associated with microphone audio leads and certainly not bunched up, as can easily happen. Overall, the message for volunteer, non-professional P. The letter in the Feb. In our church Anglican , we use two FM radio mics with the P. Erected in , with stone walls 60cm or more thick, the church is in the form of a crucifix, with the amplifier and FM receivers in one of the side chambers.

At a club I attend, the FM mic unit has the antenna incorporated in the lead from microphone to transmitter. That causes a lot of trouble when mic and transmitter are brought too close together to within 30cm or so and the lead becomes twisted or bunched up. At another club, to which my son- in-law belongs, they use a hand-held microphone with the FM transmitter built-in, and a trailing antenna about a metre long. That works perfectly. Unique electronically created dip at Hz overcomes the chest resonance pheno- menon. Acoustically generated high- frequency boost above 3 kHz for more pleasing, intelligible voice reproduction.

Also, a 12 dB per octave rolloff below Hz helps reduce low frequency room noise, and chest resonances. Unique side exit cord, and innovative mounting hardware makes it easier than ever to conceal the cable behind a tie, blouse, or shirt. Two multi-purpose mounting blocks may he connected to lanyard, or sewn, pinned, or taped onto clothing. Only Lightweight and compact for belt or pocket. Powered by 9V battery or by simplex power from external source providing 5 to 52 Vdc. Extensive RF and hum shielding to reduce effects of electromagnetic or static interference. One of a kind.

Looks fine as is with your various sound system modules bolted in place, however, should the little woman disagree , then it is dead simple to obtain some low cost timber panels from your local cabinet shop to fill the side and top recesses. Edging of the timber is not required due to the 15mm recesses. The sections and corner pieces simply push-fit together. A rubber or wooden mallet is recommended to fit together the self aligning pieces.

Further strength can be obtained by pop rivetting the various overlapping extruded sections if desired, although we hardly feel this is necessary. Side and Top Panels Tough powder coat medium grey aives a pleasing contrast with the natural anodised frame. The resultant product is extremely professional in appearance and well and truly strong enough for the heaviest of electronic equipment. Fantastic for Stereo Amplifiers, using each Heatsink will accommodatean audio output stage of approximately W per side with normal efficiency and dissipation.

For very high heat dissipation this design allows the simple fitting of computer type fans to inside back of rear panel, adjacent to each respective heatsink. Fans are thus very cheap and easy to fit and provide very efficient cooling of the heatsink. Internal Dimensions x x mm External Dimensions x x mm plus standard front panel.

C0n ,! From 1. Our Multitap 1 amp and 2 amp Transformers have proved so popular we decided to release a big brother. Made right here in Australia. Use of high grade Silicon steel has enabled surprisingly compact dimensions 70mm x 70mm x 58mm High. Essential coupling device where DC isolating is required. Z plus 30 ea 2. With Altronics low prices—here is your opportunity to install one of these outstanding sound control mixers.

Both models include microphone "Soundover" facility—making either ideal for live entertainment use. The circuitry has been kept as simple as possible while still including all essential features and maintaining a very high performance standard. The same goes for the main circuit diagram, by the way, otherwise we would have had to devote two whole pages to it.

Four signal sources are catered for, plus a tape deck. Consider the phono preamplifier, for example. If the two stereo signals from this preamplifier are simply connected together the difference signals L-R will tend to be distorted because the left channel output will be severely loaded by the very low impedance of the right channel output. And the same principle applies for the loading of the right channel. The signal from the volume control, which can be regarded as a variable voltage divider, is fed to a buffer stage with a gain of about 5.

This shows a resistance symbol combined with a solid bar, with the wiper sitting at the junction of the two. This is ensured by the specified balance control. It also has a detent position in the centre, for ease of use. After the balance control, the signal is fed to the power amplifier and then via the protection relay to the loudspeaker.

This also incorporates speaker muting when the headphones are plugged in, which obviates the need for a separate loudspeaker switch. Circuit description Let us now examine the circuit of the new amplifier in detail, starting with the phono preamplifier. The 39 1 resistor in series with the.

Note that the 0. This curtails the response to the very low frequencies generated by the phono cartridge when playing warped records. Output from the volume control is capacitively coupled to the input of op amp IC2. The feedback around IC2 is set by the 4. To prevent RF pickup at this point in the circuit, a lk l stopper resistor at the input pin 3, IC2 has been included. The 18pF compensation capacitor and pF capacitor across the 4.

IC3 forms the tone control stage which operates by providing variable frequency-dependent negative feedback. When the bass and treble controls are centred, the gain is flat over the audible frequency range. Winding the bass or treble controls towards the input side of IC3 causes the gain to increase for frequencies above 2kHz and below Hz for the treble and bass controls respectively. Power amplifier Following the balance control is the power amplifier. Q6 and Q7 form a differential pair with Q8 acting as a constant current tail.

It operates as follows: Diodes D1 and D2 set about 1. Due to the nominal 0. The collector current is thus about 1mA which is shared equally by Q6 and Q7. The inclusion of the constant current source Q8 provides a very high power supply rejection ratio PSRR for the amplifier. This means that the amplifier is less likely to respond to variations in the supply rails which may include large ripple signals ie, hum and harmonics of the input signal which could lead to higher distortion in the output.

Thus Q3 helps improve the distortion and hum performance figures. Balanced output signals from the 4. F 16VW PC electrolytic 2 6. VF metallised polyester 2. Potentiometers 2 ft miniature vertical trimpots 1 dual gang lOOkft linear PC-mount pot 1 dual gang 50kft log PC-mount pot 1 dual gang 25kft linear PC-mount pot 1 dual gang lOkft linear PC-mount balance pot Miscellaneous Screws, nuts, solder, etc. This consists of Q9, the two ft resistors and diode D3. The net effect of the current mirror scheme is to give a higher gain from the stage and better overall linearity over the full voltage swing.

Q12 is a Vbe multiplier. It is used to set the bias voltage between the bases of the Darlington output stages which comprise Q13 and Q15 for the positive half of the amplifier and Q14 and Q16 for the negative half of the amplifier. The ft trimpot VR1 and the ft resistor at the base of Q12 set the amount of bias for Q12 and so VR1 is used to set the quiescent current in the output stage. Emitter resistors for Q15 and Q16 provide bias stability and consist of four lft resistors in parallel, eight resistors in total. Single pole lag compensation for the amplifier to ensure overall stability with feedback applied is applied from base to collector of Qll with a 68pF capacitor.

This latest design incorporates two refinements which we introduced with the Playmaster Series amplifier. This particular capacitor is specified to avoid failures when the amplifier is driven hard at high frequencies. This turns on Q18 and removes bias from Q Q21 is switched off, de-ener- gising the relay. This disconnects the loudspeakers. Similarly, if a positive DC voltage of more than 2V occurs at the output of one of the power amplifiers, then Q19 will be forward biased. Initial muting When power is first applied to the protection circuit, at switch-on, the 15V supply is immediately available to Q However, Q20 is unable to turn on since the supply for the base current via the 56kft resistor is initially at ground potential.

This switches on the relay via Q Whenever the headphone plug is inserted into this socket, the relay is disabled and the speakers are disconnected. This is done so that the op amps maintain control of their outputs until the balanced supply rails fall almost to zero. The result of this is an audible thump as the amplifier is turned off. Power supply As noted last month, the key to the power supply is the VA toroidal power transformer which has very low hum radiation.

That completes the circuit description. In this fast-changing electronic world people with interest and training are going to be in demand. With a Stotts Home Study Course, training is easy, and will prepare you for a career in the manufacture, installation, commissioning, sales or servicing of electronic equipment. And best of all, you'll study at your own pace, in your own home. Send the coupon today. It may be the smartest move of your life. Perth, 25 Richardson Street. Stott s undertake that no sales counsellor will visit you. Here he talks about his experience with tne HP system and offers some salient advice to the new generation of designers who will follow in his wake.

Have you always felt at ease working with computers? Really I was a latecomer to computers because I didn't have any formal training and I was frightened of them. In fact, I used to dream up some wonderful excuses to avoid getting involved with them. And really this HP stuff is so easy to use, Fm not sure what I was frightened of. But we use it to design the shape and structure of the boat, and the sails.

Plus we use the computer to test different hull shapes. I mean it counts for a lot when the person who writes the software understands the workings of the processor. And believe me, that can save a lot of time and worryf' How has the HP equipment assisted in the day-to-day running of your office? This is mainly aue to the fact that the computer does so much of the calculation which we used to labour over manually.

It mieht take me about ten minutes to do a keel whereas before it might have taken a week. The equipment is dead accurate and I can do a more thorough job for far fewer man-hours. And when you're talking about a million dollar boat, you've got to be damn sure you've got the right equipment to do it. And once we all realise its potential, you're going to see a lot of very happy and satisfied people in all sorts of design offices. HP's renowned technical excellence shines brilliantly in the DesignCentre where our engineering workstations and quality graphics peripherals come to the fore.

And irs well worth remembering that HPs reputation for unfailing backup and support has been well earned. HP offers a comprehensive solution to your CAD. To obtain your free DesignCentre Management Kit or Technical Kit to help make your next design project a winner, call HP now toll free on or send in the coupon below. Ting-a-ling, ding-a-ling! You can use it to turn on outside lights, a spa or an electric blanket.

With this nifty little project, you can do just that. So how does the Phone Controller work? The concept is really quite straightforward — the device is simply triggered by a preset number of phone rings and switches a relay to turn on the appliance. The accompanying photographs show the neat appearance of the prototype.

In operation, the appliance is plugged into the rear socket while the Phone Controller is plugged into the mains. An internal microphone listens to the telephone and passes the received ring signal onto a counter circuit. When the correct number of rings is detected, the appliance is switched on. This is to prevent the unit from being false-triggered by other callers. Design features It is here that we came to the first problem in designing such a unit. What number of rings should be selected to provide maximum security against false triggering? Thus the circuit will trigger on either four rings, five rings or six rings.

If readers disagree with our optimum number, the circuit can easily be altered to trigger on another sequence of three numbers between one and eight. Note that the unit is designed to switch an appliance once only. Once the appliance has been switched on, it can only be switched off manually. How it works Fig. For each ms ring pulse, the current is modulated by a It is this current that activates the bell striker within the telephone. The resultant pulse train is then fed to a counter circuit. It uses four ICs: a TL op amp, a hex Schmitt trigger, a timer and a decade counter.

The signal picked up by the microphone is AC coupled to IC1 which is an inverting amplifier with a gain of about The way in which the circuit works is rather devious. Thus, pin 6 of IC1 will also be at 9. Thus, C2 is initially discharged. Cl now charges via R1 and R2, while C2 charges via R3 towards the 9. When the charge on C2 reaches the positive Schmitt trigger threshold, pin 4 of IC2b switches high again and restores the 9.

IC1 thus reverts to normal operation, its output going to about 9. As a result, IC2a is unable to respond to further signals from IC1 until C2 discharges ie, pin 1 goes back to the 9. It means that the microphone preamplifier circuit delivers a single low pulse in response to a ring from the telephone and does not respond again until after C2 has gone through its charge and discharge cycles. We have set this time to about 1.

The output of IC2b clocks decade counter IC4. As each positive going clock signal is received, the next output of the counter switches high. If, on the other hand, the count stops at Ql, Q2 or Q3, nothing happens since C4 is unable to charge. Similarly, if the count exceeds Q6, C4 will not charge sufficiently during the time that Q4, Q5 and Q6 are high due to the relatively long time constant of R6C4. Finally, if the count reaches nine, Q9 pulls the CE input pin 13 high and stops the counter. Note that, once triggered, the SCR continues to conduct even if the gate current is removed.

It can only be switched off by reducing the current through the device to zero. In practice, this means that the Phone Controller must be manually switched off. Resetting timer IC3 has two functions. First, it releases the reset on the counter when the first ring is detected so that it can begin counting. Second, it rearms the circuit some 24 seconds after the last phone call so that it cannot be disabled by other callers.

When pin 4 of IC2b pulses low on the first ring from the telephone, pin 2 of IC3 also pulses low. IC3 has a time constant of 24 seconds 1. For this reason, we have added a capacitor discharge circuit consisting of Dl, IC2c, a. By this means, C3 is kept discharged until the cessation of the call. When the caller hangs up, pin 6 of IC2c remains high and so Dl is reverse biased. This resets IC4 and, at the same time, discharges C4 via D2 and its series 2. This is necessary to ensure that the maximum voltage rating of the ICs 16V is not exceeded.

LED 2 and its associated 1. A Scotchcal adhesive label was used to give the completed project a professional appearance. First Family of DMMs. The tough 20 Series — totally sealed and built to survive the dirtiest, grimiest, roughest jobs. The reliable B Series — made to withstand the rigors of the field service environment. Tel: 03 QLD. Tel: 08 W. West Perth. Select the tip temp, required. Zero Voltage switching for maximum component safety. Control appliances by telephone be followed here although we suggest that the smaller parts be installed first.

For example, you may decide that seven rings is the number that best suits your particular application. There are additional holes on the PCB to provide for this. Note that it must be correctly oriented. The earth pin is the one that is connected to the case. When the PCB has been completed, attention can be turned to the plastic case. Temporarily position the PCB in the case, then mark out and drill holes for the cord clamp grommet and mains outlet socket.

You will have to drill three holes in this panel — one each for the power and indicator LEDs, and one for the power switch. The Society also uses this site to give details of its internal organisation and activities, as well as to make available online both HTML and PDF versions of its newsletter. All information is available in English and free of charge. Links to other relevant sites in English and Italian are given.

Issues are fully and freely available online, with articles presented for the most part in PDF format. Although the journal currently publishes in English only, translations into a variety of non-European languages are planned. Information on the journal's editorial board, along with instructions to contributors, and details of future issues, can all be found on the site. The Information page contains links to other relevant websites of interest, and a select few links can also be found on the Contents page.

This website provides access to all works featured since and they are available without charge. These include the following articles: 'The shape of the working class'; 'A history of Muslim workers in Britain'; 'Marxism and terrorism'; and 'Socialism in the 21st century'. The site also provides links to relevant online resources and audio recordings from a few conferences. This should be a useful resource for those interested in political philosophy. Isegoria ISSN is a biannual journal dedicated to moral and political philosophy.

Thus Spoke Zarathustra Clearscan

Based in Spain, it publishes articles on a wide range of topics including those on ethics; analytical philosophy; and the philosophy of right, history, religion, and science. This website is accessible in Spanish and English. It contains an archive which allows viewers to read a number of the works they published without charge.

These are in PDF format and are mostly in Spanish. The site also provides a search engine; submission guidelines for authors; and information about its editorial board. This website provides bibliographical and secondary source material on the British Utilitarian and political and economic theorist, Jeremy Bentham , along with a selection of his works.

A complete list of all published works by Bentham is given, as well as a selected list, on the home page, of writings on Bentham. The site is perhaps of primary interest, though, for its provision of the full text of a number of Bentham's works centring on economic theory, including: 'Defence of Usury'; 'Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislation'; 'A Fragment on Government'; and 'A Manual of Political Economy'.

Some of these texts are in PDF format.

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  4. Jeremy Bentham Links is a large collection of varied Internet sources for the study of Jeremy Bentham, the nineteenth-century political philosopher who created "Benthamism" based upon the theory of utilitarianism "the greatest good for the greatest number" principle , which drove Victorian legal reformers. Although this website contains little original content, it is a very good source for those studying nineteenth-century political science, history, philosophy, or for literature students as background knowledge for prose by writers such as Charles Dickens, John Ruskin, and Thomas Carlyle.

    There are links to Bentham's letters, his infamous will in which he ordered his body to be preserved and seated at a desk in a glass case, and many articles on his works. The website offers a substantial collection of primary texts, many of which were translated by Johnston, plus many of Johnston's own essays, lecture transcripts, book reviews, and other study materials.

    Most of the primary texts fall within the disciplines of classics and philosophy, including works by: Aristophanes; Homer; Nietzsche; Rousseau; and several others. The lectures and other material cover many of the same authors, plus a number of literary writers: T. Eliot, John Milton, and Tom Stoppard are among those included, and there is a section devoted to the study of Shakespeare.

    The site describes itself as 'designed to provide curricular material for various courses in literature and Liberal Studies'. The works are freely available for educational and other non-commercial uses. This is the personal homepage of the renowned moral, legal and political philosopher Joseph Raz b. This website contains his curriculum vitae CV ; an annotated bibliography of his books; and a list of his other publications.

    Significantly, it provides access to recent articles written by him, both published and unpublished. The site also provides links to the homepages of organisations which Raz is affiliated with. It is divided into annual volumes which run back to Areas dealt with include: Vinaya and jurisprudence; medical ethics; philosophical ethics; human rights; ethics and psychology; ecology and the environment; social and political philosophy; cross-cultural ethics; ethics and anthropology; and interfaith dialogue on ethics.

    The journal also carries a substantial number of book reviews. The website presents full information about submitting to the journal, plus details of the editorial board, policy, and coverage. The Journal of Buddhist Ethics is also a gateway to online resources for the study of Buddhism in general. There is an extensive though unannotated list of websites, and the scholarly resources section includes links to bibliographies and other reference materials. The site further acts as the primary distributor of a public domain version of the Pali Canon in electronic form in association with the Sri Lanka Tripitaka Project.

    Additional fonts may be required in order to display the texts in Pali. The site also includes a search engine. Edited by Andrei Marmor, James Dreier, Julia Driver and David Estlund, this electronic peer-reviewed journal publishes short discussion notes and articles on moral, political and legal philosophy. The site allows the public to access without charge all materials featured in the journal since the first volume was published in Items can be searched chronologically, or by title, keyword or authors' name. The homepage also contains the journal's editorial policy and instructions for authors.

    This web page attempts to collate the bibliographic details of all journals devoted to eighteenth-century studies extant in the world. In practice, this amounts to over twenty publications in various languages covering most humanities disciplines. For each journal, the following information is given where available: the date of the journal's inception; the address at which it may be contacted; its current editors; its size, scope, and price; the frequency of its publication; the number of subscribers; the countries where it is distributed; the language s in which it is written; whether or not the journal includes book reviews; and an email and web page address.

    The website is written in both French and English, and is of obvious value to anyone wishing to publish an article on an eighteenth-century subject, or find a relevant journal in a particular field. Issues include themes that range from anthropology to theology - there are articles on gift exchange, and there are pieces on ideas of responsibility in Jacques Derrida and Immanuel Levinas.

    Theory is the shared language of these disciplines, but only a theory that puts itself on the agenda. Unfortunately, the site does not seem to have been updated since The existing links are nevertheless working and the materials contained on the site would still be of use to those working in theory, culture or politics. The Marx-Engels collection here runs from to Documents are transcripts of originals in German, ranging from private letters, articles, to manuscript texts and publications.

    Topics of note include the Jewish Question and emancipation; anti-Semitism; the role of power in history; the working classes in England, Chartists and the Corn Laws; critiques of Hegelian legal philosophy and state law; speeches on free trade and speeches at economic congresses; commentaries on 19th century political affairs in Europe and Russia; the Communist Manifesto; Das Kapital; and remarks on the Franco-Prussian War of This collection will prove helpful for undergraduates and postgraduates who are just starting their research and the site would also make a good teaching tool.

    The site has its own search engine, with which users can search through the texts of documents. Bibliographical information is posted with each transcription. Krisis is a Dutch open access peer-reviewed journal for contemporary philosophy. It provides an arena for the discussion of issues in social and political philosophy, cultural theory, the philosophy of science and technology, and empirical philosophy. Titles of recent articles include: 'Seeds of the Future. Krisis has existed in print form since , but was relaunched as an online publication in It began life as an exclusively Dutch-language work, but recent issues also include articles in English.

    The Leon Trotsky Internet Archive is a resource that provides access to an extensive online collection of Trotsky's works. The scope of material is vast, ranging from minor articles to major monographs, all of which are listed chronologically. There is also biographical information on Trotsky, photographs, and extensive links to online versions of Trotsky's writing in languages other than English. Leon Trotsky remains one of the most important Marxist thinkers of all time.

    Trotsky is famous for his contribution to the concept of permanent revolution. He postulated that victory of socialism outside Russia was a necessary condition to the stable establishment of socialism within Russia. The Leon Trotsky Internet Archive is an invaluable resource for anyone studying and researching Trotsky and his work. It forms part of the vast Marxist Internet Archive, which is committed to providing free access to material and resources on Marxism.

    A website maintained by the Constitution Society which provides free access to a collection of several hundred full text books on constitutional government and political philosophy. These include classic works on the nature of government and democracy published from the 17th Century - 19th century. Also provided are works on the American constitution and the nature of the American republic.

    The Constitution Society's 'Liberty Library' contains the texts of nearly historic legal, philosophical, or constitutional documents. Although the more recent materials are weighted towards American constitutional history, there are many important English documents from before the War of Independence and several older European and Classical texts. All texts are in English and provide details of the print edition they have been adapted from and the translator where applicable.

    Many of the texts are available to view in a choice of formats; all are available as HTML files. This is an excellent site with a good selection of reliable texts. It should be of use to historians, political philosophers, and interested members of the general public alike. This Open University website accompanies a series of BBC Four television lectures delivered by Mark Steel, stand-up comedian, journalist and political satirist. The series is an adaptation of Steel's earlier broadcasts on Radio 4 and presents the left-wing comedian's own opinions on the lives and works of "people with a passion" including Aristotle, Byron, Cromwell, Darwin, Descartes, Marx, Newton, Paine, and Pankhurst.

    The television lectures were well-researched, and are forcefully and clearly delivered. They avoid comical lecturing, but comedy pervades every episode. Genuine historical comment and insight captures the attention of all - including the "MTV generation". Although obviously accessible for the general reader, the website will be of interest for school and undergraduate students. There is also the opportuntiy to follow the history of thought and philosophy further with links to Open University courses, and an email discussion forum about the lectures.

    The Marxists Internet Archive is an extensive resource which aims to provide access to texts by and about Marxist thinkers. The most interesting feature about the site however is its pedagogical intent. Those familiar with Marxism will find the resource very useful, but those new to Marxism can receive what is, in effect, a crash course in dialectical materialism. Explaining basic tenets, such as the theory of surplus value and alienation, Marxism.

    The site is divided into five main sections: Marxist writers; Marxist history; subject archive; reference writers; encyclopaedia of Marxism. There is also a students' section presenting selected foundational texts as an introduction to early Marxism. Marxist writers is the largest section, holding over texts. The Marx and Engels, and Lenin archives are the most substantial, each holding over works as well as correspondence, biographies, photographic images and a subject index.

    The Marxist history section contains substantial material for the study of the Paris commune and early Soviet history. The subject archive deals with themes like anti-imperialism and Marxism in Africa, political economy, the German Revolution, and the Praxis Group. The section on reference writers draws attention to individuals whose works assist in understanding Marxist concepts. Work on the site is undertaken by a team of volunteers. The contributions of the volunteers and the overall management of the site is governed by a constitution reflecting the spirit of Marxist thought.

    This is a German-language website devoted to the 19th-century German philosopher Max Stirner A pupil of Hegel, Stirner published works in the spirit of 'left Hegelianism'. His reputation today is divided between those who regard him as a still relevant oppositional thinker, and those who consider him a weak precursor of Marx or Nietzsche. The site contains the following sections: information about Max Stirner publications; book reviews; contents of the journal published by the site, including articles on Stirner's relationships with the thought of Hegel, Marx, Nietzsche, Freud, and anarchism; and a biography of the thinker.

    It is dedicated to Henry Sidgwick , a Victorian academic who in many ways embodied the spirit of the Victorian period with his constant search for knowledge and the breadth of study he embraced. He studied philosophy, religion, politics, mathematics, ethics, adopting John Stuart Mill's ideas about utilitarianism, developing formulas for social welfare, and promoting women's education. Each chapter is organised by sections that are indicated by brief descriptions.

    This format makes the texts searchable and gives easy access. There is a secondary source by David Braybrooke entitled 'Sidgwick's Critique of Nozick', as well as a couple of links to further your search. The site provides a search engine. At the time this record was reviewed, a number of links were in need of repair.

    The website of the Michael Oakeshott Association MOA provides details about the activities of this society devoted to the promotion and critical discussion of the work of the conservative British political philosopher. The site is in blog format, and includes posts reporting relevant news for example, of new publications or events , and links to material of interest available elsewhere online.

    Additionally, the site offers a brief biography of Oakeshott, plus an extensive bibliography last updated in of works by and about him. Membership information for the Association is provided, plus details of MOA conferences.

    Miracle of Holland - Hugo Grotius : naturalist, eclectic, or theonomist? This online essay discusses the legal philosophy of Hugo Grotius from the perspective of the ethical precepts laid down in his theological works. The author seeks to determine whether Grotius should be considered as belonging to the naturalist, positivist, or eclectic, school of international legal theory or under 'an entirely separate category', the theonomist school. The essay also asks whether Grotius is of any relevance to legal theory today, concluding that his belief that a state is composed of individuals, rather than an abstract entity in itself, should be given greater attention.

    The essay's footnotes are a little intrusive, being regularly inserted into the body of the text, but the work appears scholarly enough. This Web page on the website of the Intercollegiate Studies Institute gives free and open access to a 50 year digital archive of the journal 'Modern Age', one of the leading journals in post political philosophy. Journal issues are in full-text form, and may be downloaded as PDF files.

    This will be a useful resource for historians of politics, especially in the English-speaking world. There appears to be no keyword search option, but using Google to search for: keyword site:www. The Nietzsche Society website is the home page of the organisation of the same name, whose stated aim is the promotion of the study of the philosophy of the 19th century German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche , primarily from a Continental perspective. The resource provides details of the aims and activities of the Society, including its annual conference, as well as hyperlinked access to the website of the Society's journal "New Nietzsche Studies".

    There is also linked access to a useful array of Nietzsche resources hosted elsewhere on the Web, including other Nietzsche societies and various research tools dedicated to the study of Nietzsche. The resource is easy to navigate with its hyperlink facility, though employs sometimes quite distracting especially on the journal's call for papers page large-scale graphics.

    Unfortunately, the Society's information pages do not appear to have been updated for some time; however, the links are still current and the journal's Web page is up-to-date. The Nietzsche Source website provides online scholarly editions of the works of the German 19th-century philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche. The works are available in two forms: an electronic critical edition, and digital facsimiles of manuscripts, proof copies, and early printed versions of Nietzsche's writings. The site's introductory material is available in four languages English, German, French, and Italian , though the works themselves are only in German.

    The material is made available under a Creative Commons licence, so may be reused for non-commercial purposes free of charge. A valuable resource for serious Nietzsche scholars. This website is dedicated to the life and work of Norberto Bobbio one of the key Italian political philosophers of the twentieth century. Hosted by the Centro studi Piero Gobetti of Turin, it provides access to a well organised bibliography of Norberto Bobbio's entire work. This can be searched by subject, genre, language, source and date.

    The full-text of the majority of works listed is available online, or can be ordered electronically. At the time of this review the complete output for the years to has been added. Publications regarding Norberto Bobbio - monographs, articles and book-reviews - are available. The section "News" contains full-text of newspaper articles and press cuttings, listed in chronological order; writings by Norberto Bobbio, subdivided by their topics; relevant articles by different authors.

    The website is available in Italian, English and several other languages, although to varying degrees of completeness. This is the website of the North American Nietzsche Society. The Society was formed in to encourage dialogue among scholars working on Friedrich Nietzsche , foster exchange of ideas and collaborations, and encourage other Nietzsche-based productions.

    Philosophers and researchers in German literature constitute the majority of Society members. The site contains calls for papers, previous conference programmes, information about joining the Society, and a brief message from the Society's director, the Nietzsche scholar Richard Schacht. There is also a section devoted to the correct citation of Nietzsche's texts.

    The focus of ORB is on scholarly reviews of "recently published work in literature, politics, history, science and the arts". Drawings, photographs and poetry are also published occasionally. For potential contributors, the ORB website has details of the submission process and procedures. Paideia project on-line : Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy.

    The most substantial aspect of the site is the Paideia Archive, which makes available almost a thousand papers presented at the conference. The archive arranges papers by subject matter in an orderly and user-friendly manner, and the coverage is fairly comprehensive. Beyond the traditional philosophical categories, there are sections on the philosophy of sport, education, children, gender, and literature, plus regional entries focusing on African, Asian, American, and Latin American philosophy.

    The papers themselves are in printer-friendly HTML format and, with a few exceptions, are in English. They are written by professional philosophers and graduate students who attended the Congress. There is a sophisticated search function for finding particular topics in the archive.

    This resource will be of primary use to research students and faculty members, especially those investigating the less conventional or widespread areas of philosophy. Parrhesia - A Journal of Critical Philosophy ISSN is a peer-reviewed work which examines the intersections between questions of subjectivity, politics, ethics, aesthetics and truth. This website allows free access to all published articles and book reviews. It contains information about the editorial board; a style guide; and links to relevant websites.

    The course dealt with core topics in political philosophy and democratic theory. The site provides access to lecture notes that deal with topics such as Thomas Hobbes' and Jean-Jacques Rousseau's arguments for the state, and John Rawls' theory of justice. There are also links to relevant articles and texts online, but users should be aware that a number of these require access to JSTOR, an archive of scholarly journals available by subscription.

    This site is a collection of essays, about various topics in current philosophy. The main topics are: philosophy of science, cognitive science, aesthetics, philosophy of economics, and philosophy of psychology. The essays tend to be quite short but, in many cases, serve as a useful introduction to various topics. The site consists of a series of links to the articles, which are organised by area of philosophy, and accessing the material is therefore quite straightforward. There are also links to other useful sites. Philosophy Compass ISSN is an online scholarly journal which publishes original peer-reviewed surveys of research and other significant works from across the discipline.

    It fills a gap left by existing guides within the subject by focussing on the most up-to-date development in philosophy. While this is a subscription-based journal, free trials are available from this site, together with sample articles and abstracts of all materials published.

    The site also provides information about its editorial board and on how to subscribe to the journal. This resource gives a general description of the concept of trust and contains interesting commentaries from contemporary academics on trust, philosophy and society. There is a section which gives a brief summary of the viewpoints of several philosophers on this topic. All of the above can be downloaded as PDF or Word documents.

    Viewers are also given the opportunity to engage in the Open University's interactive version of The Prisoner's Dilemma. The module deals primarily with the topics of distributive justice and the justification for political authority. This website gives access to lecture outlines that deal with many topics in this area, such as Plato's BCE rejection of Thrasymachus' account of justice and John Locke's justification for state authority.

    The site also contains a useful summary outline of the lecture notes, a study guide that highlights key themes and points of interest, and a guide to writing philosophy papers. Although the resource does not seem to have been updated since , the contents remain useful for undergraduates beginning studies in Political Philosophy. It offers introductory material on various aspects of political thought, philosophy, and intellectual history.

    These take the form of essays, lecture notes, reading guides, and other teaching materials, accompanied by copies of a few of the primary works under discussion some of which are in the original Latin. This site is likely to be of interest to undergraduate students, and perhaps also to instructors searching for examples of content, structure, and teaching methodology. The Friesian School traces its origins back to Kant. Fries was rediscovered by Leonard Nelson The journal contains an archive of essays on a range of subject areas including, 'History of Philosophy' largest section , 'Epistemology', 'Philosophy of Science', 'Ethics', 'Political Economy', 'Value Theory', 'Philosophy of Religion', 'Metaphysics', and 'Philosophy of History'.

    Each section contains a mixture of contributed essays and editorial essays the latter written by the editor, Kelley L. There are also a number of book reviews, the majority undertaken by the editor. The journal is not peer reviewed though authors of contributed essays include academic staff, postgraduates and senior undergraduates. The writings of the editor comprise the bulk of the site.

    A section of the site is also dedicated to the publication of correspondence between the editor and readers. The journal aims to publish work challenging an established view in a field of study. Back-issues are freely available online from the year to , but access to the most recent issue is limited to subscribers only. Some issues published prior to are available in print form via mail-order. There are many free articles online, likely to be of interest to political philosophers - especially those examining fascist and Marxist ideology, and the contemporary U.

    The website has details of the editors, Editorial Board, and submission details. Although the main page footer states that the website has not been updated since , issues from have been placed online. The 'R. Forum' or Research on Anarchism website provides access to a database containing information about a wide variety of resources relating to the history of anarchism.

    These records cover the development of anarchism from early thinkers such as Bakunin and Kropotkin to 20th-century and contemporary figures such as Emma Goldman, Murray Bookchin and Colin Ward. The site includes a wide variety of records, such as: full-length scholarly articles; transcripts of presentations and speeches; links to online editions of key texts; bibliographies and bibliographic records of anarchist periodicals; titles of current theses on anarchism and related subjects; book reviews; and reviews of art exhibitions, plays and other events.

    The site also includes a calendar of current events, and a link to the Research on Anarchism Discussion List. The website is available in several languages, with varying numbers of records in each language; those languages with the most records are French and English. The site can be browsed using the comprehensive lists of names and keywords.

    It can also be searched. Each record is accompanied by a list of related records in English, and a further list of similar records in other languages.

    Links to relevant external sites are also provided. The navigation could perhaps be a little clearer, and more differentiation between the types of records would be helpful to the first-time user. This website is a rich resource, providing access to a wealth of information about sources for research on anarchism, and to critical writing by contemporary thinkers. It will be of interest to any student of anarchist thought. The Radical Academy is a vast website that provides information on an array of subjects, as well as acting as a gateway to other sites.

    The emphasis in on philosophy, but politics and political theory, religion, education, and the sciences are all covered. From the Academy's home page one can connect to sections providing resources on a range of subjects, mostly related to philosophy, including: collections of essays by the Academy's president, Jonathan Dolhenty, and by Mortimer J. Adler ; a glossary of philosophical terms; and various sections on the history of philosophy and on individual philosophers, such as Thomas Aquinas ca.

    The Resource Centers section offers substantial collections of links to off-site resources, categorised by subject area. Additionally, there are plenty of opportunities to become actively involved with the site, in the form of blogs, forums, a guestbook, and a chance to ask the Academy a question.

    News, events, and other items of topical interest are also supplied. Some of the in-house resources suggest that for the most part the site is being pitched at a general or introductory level. Because of the scale of the website and the presence of a considerable amount of advertising, the site is not at first glance easy to navigate, and individual pages are slow to load. The persistent explorer will, however, be rewarded with a potential wealth of information.

    Ratio juris : an international journal of jurisprudence and philosophy of law. Papers published include the following: 'Means and capabilities in the discussion of distributive justice'; 'Rights and the sovereignty of the people in the crisis of the nation state'; 'Human rights and the limits of constitutional theory'; 'Equality before the law and precedent'; and 'Essentialism, conventionalism and primacy'. The journal is published quarterly by Wiley Blackwell in conjunction with the University of Bologna. It is edited by Carla Faralli.

    At June , four key issues of 'The Realist' are freely available online. Issues are available as readable page images, with one large and clear scan per page. The author of the website states his intention to post online "four issues every month until the archive is complete", and these will be in their original uncensored form. The original editor of 'The Realist', Paul Krassner, is thanked by the author of the website, who states scans are "posted with permission".

    Thus it would appear that Krassner has given permission for the archive to be scanned and placed online. The Reith Lectures are an annual series of lectures, held since on a variety of topical issues, which are sponsored by the BBC and presented at venues around the UK. The five lectures each considered an aspect of trust and the lecture headings were as follows: spreading suspicion; trust and terror; called to account; trust and transparency; and licence to deceive.

    This website concentrates on works by and on the renowned philosopher Roberto Mangabeira Unger. These include: excerpts from and reviews of his books; the full-text of articles by and on Unger; his writings on themes like world politics, architecture and city planning; and a bibliography of his books written in English, Spanish and Portuguese. The site also contains biographical articles; links to relevant websites; and a guestbook.

    One of the most valuable elements of the website is Roger Scruton's active weblog, which has archives that date back to In the 'Journalism' section there is a link to an external website containing a full bibliography and full-text copies of many notable press articles by Scruton. A full listing of books can be found in the online C. The website also has details of Scruton's activities in music composition, broadcasting, teaching, his farming, and his personal projects. The Sir Thomas More pages from Luminarium.

    The biography contains hyperlinks to pages of information about the places and personalities with whom More was associated, and includes footnotes and a small bibliography. There are also online secondary essays, which offer varying perspectives on More's achievements; and a long list of categorised links to other online materials about More. This web resource should prove useful to undergraduates studying Sir Thomas More from a literary or political philosophy perspective.

    Established in , the centre studies public policy issues from a philosophical perspective. In so doing, it uses insights from other disciplines like economics, jurisprudence and political science. The site informs visitors of upcoming events e. It also connects them to Social Philosophy and Policy, the centre's journal which is published twice a year by Cambridge University Press. Each volume is based on a specific theme e.

    Visitors can view all themes explored since from that homepage. This is the official website for the Society for Applied Philosophy, a British organisation founded in , and a forerunner in promoting rigorous philosophical work with a strong practical and social relevance. The society publishes the Journal of Applied Philosophy since , the contents of which can be viewed from here. Access to full content is nevertheless restricted and is available only to subscribers. The Society organises lectures, workshops, and an annual conference. Information on current and forthcoming activities can be found on the site, along with an archive of previous events.

    The society invites proposals for future workshops. Membership of the Society is open to all interested parties, and instructions on how to join are given. This site is of interest both to students and teachers of philosophy working in areas of practical concern, such as applied ethics, science, law, education, politics, and medicine. It is also of interest to practitioners or students of those professions seeking informed but accessible debate about important or controversial issues within their field. This is the website of the Society for Utopian Studies SUS , which is "an international, interdisciplinary association devoted to the study of utopianism in all its forms, with a particular emphasis on literary and experimental utopias.

    The website has advance notice of future annual SUS meetings, with details about how to submit papers. There is information about how to join SUS, and all the other details one would expect to find on the website of a scholarly society. There are some useful links to external websites. The site does not endorse or espouse one particular stance regarding any religious or moral issue. Rather, it aims to disseminate information and facilitate open discussion and informed political activity.

    The site attempts to present a range of views on issues such as abortion, the death penalty, religion and morality, animal rights, and gay rights. Including links to news resources, government documents, and the websites of relevant organizations, SpeakOut. However, while there is much food for thought here, users should note that this site does not appear to be updated particularly frequently, and hence the information included about various issues may not always be as current as one could wish: for example, news stories may well be out of date, and not all links to external sites are functioning.

    Users should also be aware that as this is an American site, the focus is firmly on these issues as they pertain to the USA: the legislation and sample cases referred to are almost exclusively American. This website provides: an electronic subscription form; details of their submission guidelines and editorial board; and a search engine. Viewers can gain access to all materials published since June without charge.

    There does not, however, appear to be a consistent pattern as to how regularly these are published every year. An interesting resource for Philosophy students. Tales of the frontier : political representations and practices inspired by Hadrian's Wall. Tales of the frontier: political representations and practices inspired by Hadrian's Wall is the website of a major Arts and Humanities Research Council project July - Sept , which is investigating the cultural and political meanings given to this famous Roman frontier system.

    The project will range in time from the Venerable Bede 8th Century to contemporary tourism, and will draw on a wide variety of resources including works of art and literature.