Naval Architecture for Marine Engineers

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You can expect an average of 20 hours of these per week. You should supplement this with self-study. Self-study is important as it develops the confidence to tackle unfamiliar problems. This is an essential skill for professional engineers. Throughout the course, field trips will give you first-hand experience of industrial activities in the marine sector. Individual and group projects are a major part of the course from the start. First-year students carry out a basic design, build and evaluate project. In fourth year, students carry out a performance-based group design project as well as their major individual project.

This is introduced from first year with sessions covering basic aspects of hydrostatics and stability. In second-year, students take part in the design and build of a small-scale racing yacht. This combines the use of professional Naval Architecture design software for hull design, Computer Aided Manufacture for hull generation. This is combined with hands-on practical skills and hydrodynamic testing. An intensive laboratory-based class in third year involves more formal experimental testing, in which students carry out a number of hydrodynamics, dynamics and marine engineering experimental projects.

This is used to demonstrate the practical application of theory and also gives you exposure to current engineering practice.

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The use of professional software to solve real engineering problems is introduced in first year and is reinforced throughout subsequent years. During term time, we arrange weekly seminars in which leaders and pioneers of the maritime, oil and gas and marine renewables industries visit the department and present to students. This is a great way of supplementing your education with the latest developments and gaining industry contacts for your future career. We want to increase opportunities for people from every background.

Strathclyde selects our students based on merit, potential and the ability to benefit from the education we offer. We look for more than just your grades. We consider the circumstances of your education and will make lower offers to certain applicants as a result. Find out entry requirements for your country.

Upon successful completion, you will be able to progress to this degree course at the University of Strathclyde. All fees quoted are for full-time courses and per academic year unless stated otherwise. Assuming no change in Rest of UK fees policy over the period, the total amount payable by undergraduate students will be capped. The scholarship is available for application to all self-funded, new international non-EU fee paying students holding an offer of study for an undergraduate programme in the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Strathclyde.

Please note you must have an offer of study for a full-time course at Strathclyde before applying. You must start your full-time undergraduate programme at Strathclyde in the coming academic year International students can find out more about the costs and payments of studying a university preparation programme at the University of Strathclyde International Study Centre. Second-year students should cost one travel journey per week to KHL for two semesters.

Third-year students should cost travel to KHL for at least one session. Please note: All fees shown are annual and may be subject to an increase each year. Find out more about fees. Search for: Search. Naval architecture and marine engineering can be described as the design of floating vessels and the integration of their components. Webb Institute Has a Prescribed Curriculum. All students take the same classes all four years. The subjects are as follows:.

Naval Architecture. Marine Engineering. Engineering and Science Core Requirements. Mathematics and Computer Science. Calculate the new drauJbt if this compartment is laid open to the sea when: a Jl is '7. A box buge 50 m lona and 8 m wide floats at a draught of 3 m and bas a mid-1enath companmeot 9 m lona containing coal rd 1. Calculate the new draulht if this compartment is billed. A vessel of constant rectangular cross-section is 60 m long, 12 m beam and floats at a draught of 4. Find the new draught if this compartment is bilged: a below the flat b above the flat. A box barar 2S m lona and 4 m wide 00aLs ill fresb water at a draqht of 1.

The bottom of the barJe is lined with teat rd O. After grounding all the teak is torn off and the centre compartmellt laid open to the 5ea.


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A box barJe m The centre of r;ravity is 3 m above the ked. Cakulate the end draughts if the compartrDeDt is biJaed. The ship must therefore exert an equal thrust to overcome the resistance and travel at that speed. If, for example, the resistance of the water on the ship at 17 knots is kN. NCE R, As the ship moves through the water. The belt QlOves aft and new particles of water are continually set in motion. The frictional resistance of a ship depends upon: i the speed of the ship il the wetted surface area iii the length of the ship iv the roughness of the hull v the density of the water.

In a sklw or medium-speed ship the frictional resistance forms the major part of the total resisu:nce, and may be as much as 75'" of R ,. The impol'taDOe of surface roughness may be seen wbe:D a ship is badly fouled with marine growth or heavily conoded, wbcD lbe speed of the ship may be considerably redooed. I mot "" 1. A ship whose wetted surface area is 51S0 m J travels at 15 knots.

Calculate the frictional resistance and the power required to overcome this resistance. If the water changes direction abruptly, such as round a box barge, the resistance may be considerable, but in modem, well-designed ships should be very small. This resistance will be small in a ship where careful attention is paid to detaIl. The eddy resistance due to fitting rectangular stern- frame and single plate rudder may be as much as SOJa of the total resistance of the ship. By streamljning the sternframe and frtting a double plate rudder, eddy resistance is.

In slow or medium-speed ships the wavemaking resistance is small compared with the frictional resistance. Several atlenlpts have been made to reduce the wave making resistance of ships, with varying degrees of success. One method which has proved to be successful is the use of the bulbous bow. The relation between the frictional resistance and the residuary resistances is shown in Fig.

Thus at corresponding speeds:. It may therefore be seen that at corresponding speeds the wave-making characteristics of similar ships are the same. At high speeds the speed-length ratio is high and the wavemaking resistance is large.

To give the same wavemaking characteristics, the corresponding speed of a much smaller, similar ship will be greatly reduced and may not be what is popularly regarded to be a high speed.. A ship is therefore considered slow or fast in rela- tion to its speed-length ratio. If J is below 1. S be Thus a speed of 15 knots would be regarded as slow for a ship m long, but fast for a ship m long. The residuary resistance of a model 7 m long is 20 N when towed at 3t knots.

A wax model of the sbip is towed at its corresponding speed in a towing tank and the total resistance of the model measured. The frictional resistance of the model is calculated and subtracted from tbe total resistance, leaving the residuary resistance. The residuary resistance of the mode! Once the total resistance of the ship is known it is possible to determine the power required to overcome this resistance. This is known as the effective power ep of tbe ship.

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The model is tested without appendages such as rudder and bilge keels. An allowance must therefore be made for these appendages and also the sencra1 disturbance of the water at sea compared with tank conditions. The true effective power is the ep. If the ship is m long, calculate the effective power at the correspoDdiog speed. SCf 1. One system which has been in use for several years is the Admiralty Coefficient method.


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This is based on the assumption that for small variations in speed the total resistance may be expressed in the form: Rt a eSJIl' It was seen earlier that S cr. Since types of machinery vary consider- ably it is now considered tbat the relation between displacement, speed and shaft power sp is of more practical value. MOSt merchant ships may be classed as slow or medium- speed, and for such vessels the index n may be takm as 2. Values of C vary between about and for different ships, the higher values indicating more efficient ships.

For small changes in speed, the value of C may be regarded as constant for any ship at constant displacement. At corresponding speeds Va Ai Y'a. Thus if tbe shaft power of one ship"is known, the shaft power for a similar ship may be obtained at the corresponding speed. A ship of tonne displacement has an Admiralty Coefficient of Calculate tbe shaft power required at 16 knots. A ship of lS tonne displacement requires kW at a panieular speed. Calculate tbe sbaft power required by a similar ship of 18 tonne displacement at its corresponding speed.

This hiper index, however, is only applicable within the high speed range. TlJ where botb VI and V1 are within the bigh speed ranee. A ship travelling at 20 knots requires 12 kW shaft power. Calculate the shaft power at 22 knots if, within this speed range, the index of speed is 4. The specific fuel consumption of a ship at different speeds follows the form shown in Fig. TM fuel coefficient of a ship of 14 tonne dis- placement is 75 Calculate the fud consumption per day if the vesscI travels at 12t knots.

Ut;J x A ship uses 20 tonne of fuel per clay at 13 knots. Calculate the daily consumption at 11 knots. The total fuel consumption for any voyage may be found by multiplying the daily consumption by the number of days required to complete the voyage. COnsl Vi 15; Hence for any given distance travelled the voyage consumption varies as. A vessel uses tonne of fuel on a voyage wben traVdliug at 16 knots. CalculaIe the mass of fuel saved if. AD of the above calculations are based on the a.

A ship has a daily fuel consumption of 30 tonne at 15 knots. New daily consumption A ship has a wetted surface area of m l. The frictional resistance per square metre of a ship is 12 N at mlmin. The ship has a wetted surface area of m2 and travels at 14 knots. Frictional resistance varies as speedl. If frictional resistance is of the total resistance, calculate the effective power.

A ship is m long, 16 m beam and floats at a draught of 7. Its block coefficient is 0. Calculate the power required to overcome frictional resistance at Use Taylor's formula for wetted surface, with c The residuary resistance of a one-twentieth scale model of a ship in Sea. Calculate the residuary resistance of the ship at its corresponding speed and the power required to overcome residuary resistance at this speed.

A ship of 14 tonne displacement has a residuary resistance of kN at 16 knots. Calculate the corresponding speed of a similar ship of 24 tonne displacement and the residuary resistance at this speed. If the effective power is kW, calculate the speed of the ship. A 6 m model of a ship has a wetted surface area of 7 m!

Calculate the shaft power at 16 knots. A ship requires a shaft power of kWat 14 knots. A ship of tonne displacement bas an Admiralty Coefficient of Calculate its speed if the sbaft power provided is kW. A ship ISO m 10Dg and 19 m beam floats at a draught of 8 m and has a block coefficient of 0. A ship of IS tonne displacement has a fuel coefficient of 62 CaIcuJate"the fuel consumption per day at 14t knots. A ship of tonne displacement bas a fuel coefficient of Calculate the speed at which it must travel to use 2S tonne of fuel per day.

A ship traVels nautical miles at 16 knots and retums with the same displacement at 14 knots. Fmd the saving in fuel on the return voyage if the consumption per day at 16 knots is 2S tonne. If the ship reacbes port with A ship uses 23 tonne of fuel per day at 14 knotS. The normal speed of a ship is 14 knots and the fuel consumption per bour is given by 0.

Calculate the percentage variation in fuel cODsumption in tbat day from normal. A ship's speed was 18 knotS. A reduction of 3. Calculate the consumption per day at 18 knots. The daily fuel conSumption of a ship at 17 bots is 42 tonne. This screw is fonned by a number of blades. PrrcH P If the propeIltt is assume4 to work in an unyielding fluid, then in one revolution of the shaft the propellcr will move forward a distance which is known as the pitch. The wake speed is often expressed as a fraction of the ship speed.

Real slip speed V T V. A propeller of 4. If the wake fraction is 0. S x RS Real slip EA is the actual area of tbe driving faces a clear of the boss Ail' b incJudina the boss areaA. Water is received into the propeller disc at the speed of advance and projected aft at the theoretical speed.

Consider a time interval of one second. The power produced by the propeller is known as tbe thrust power tp. This indicates that if. The tp of. CaIaollte the pressure on the thrwt when the tp is kW at. The mechanical efficiency of the engine is usually between about 8 Ch and 9O"l. The thrust exerted by the propelk:r must exceed the total resistance by this amouDt.

The relation between thrust and resistance may be expressed in the form R,.. The thrust power will therefore differ from the effective power. The ratio of ep to tp is known as the bull efficiency which is a little more than unity for single screw ships and about unity for twin screw ships. This is the ratio of ep to dp and obviates the use of hull efflCic:acy and propeller emciency. If the propeller is now assumed to work in an unyielding fluid, then in one revolution it will advance a distance of P, the pitch.

One form of this i. The instrument is then set on the propeller blade at tbe required distance from the boss and the arm. The distances AB and Be are then measured. Thus as the speed of rotation is increased there is a considerable increase in tbrust.


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The distribution of pressure due to thrust over the blade section is approximately as shown in Fig. This cavity is filled with water vapour and with air which disassociates from the sea water. As the blade turns, the bubble moves across the blade to a point where the net pressure is higher, causing the cavity to collapse. The fonning and collapsing of these cavities is known as cavitation. When the cavity collapses, the water pouQds the blade material, and siDce the breakdown occ:urs at the same pOSition caeb time.

Cavitation also causes reduction in thrust and cffteieDcy, vibruiou and noise. It may be reduced or avoided by mtu. Since cavitation is affected by pressure and temperature. A propeller of 5. S m diameter has a pitch ratio of 0. Caleu1aJ:e the ship speed. A ship of 12 tonne displacement is m 10DZ. S m beam and floats at a draught of 7. The propeUer has a face pitch ratio of 0. OS j4. When a propeller of 4. If the wake speed is 2S0J0 of the ship speed, calculate the ship speed, tbe apparent slip and the real slip. A propeller 4.

Calculate the speed of advance, thrust and thrust power. The pressure acned on the thrust is The power required to drive a ship at a aiven speed was kW and the pressure on the thrust A ship of 15 tonne displacement has an Admiralty Coefficient. The mechanical dfKiency of the machinery is At a particular speed the thrust power is 2S50kW.

A propeller of 4 m pitch has an efficiency of 6''''. CalCII1lte the thrust of the propeller. The pitch aug!

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Calculate the pitch of the propeller. The pitch of a propelkr is measured by means of a batten and cord. The horizontal ordinate is found to be 40 em 'while the vcnica! Calculate the pitch of the propeller and the blade width at that point. This force F follows the laws of fluid friction and may be determined from the expression. The area of rudder is DOt specified by Classification Societies, but experience bas shown that the area should be related to the area of the middle-line plane i. For rectangular rudders the centre of effort is between and h of the width of the rudder from.

The effect of the normal force is to tend to push the rudder back to its centreline position. Suc:h move- ment is rnistecl by the rudder stock and tbe steering gear. It is theft:fore possible to calculate the turning moment or torque on the rudder stock. If the cmtre of effort is b m from the centre of the rudder stock. The area under this curve up to any angle is the work done in tuniing the rudder to this angle, and may be found by the use of Simpson's Rule.

Care must be taken to express the common interval in radians. Dot degrees. The rudder is then said to be balanced. At any other rudder angle the centres of stock and effort will not coincide and there will be a torque of reduced magnitude. Thus it may be seen that the diameter of stock and power of the steering gear may be reduced if a balanced rudder is fitted.

E FOR. A resistance R is exerted by the water on the ship, and acts at the centre of lateral mistance L which is the centroid of the projected. The angle of heel due to the force on the rudder is small unless the speed is excessive or the metacentric height small. In most merchant ships this angle is hardly noticeable. The maximum. The effect of this force is to create a moment opposing the rudder force, i. This resistance is knOWD as the centripetal force. A moment then acts on the ship causiRJ it to hed. S The ship wiU be in equilibrium when the heeling moment is equal to the righting moment.

This may prove dangerous, especially in a small, hia:h speed vessel. A ship with a metacentric beight of 0. The centre of gravity is 6. The rudder is put hard over to port and the vessel turns in a circle m radius. The distance from the centre of stock to the centre of effort of the rudder is 1. The service speed ofa ship is 14 knots and the rudder, 13 ml in area, has its centre of effort 1. A ship m long and 8. The distance between the centre of lateral resistance and the centre of the rudder is 1.

A vessel travelling at 17 knots turns with a radius of m when the rudder is put hard over. The centre of gravity is 7 m above the keel, the transverse metacentre 7. If the centripetal force is assumed to act at the centre of buoyancy, calculate the angle of heel when turning. The rudder force may be ignored. L rt- ; 1 l'. Load on one rivet Pressure at bottom "" egh "" x 9. L i--,. J F;':. I -;t-. Assume water at top edge: 5 x7 7 Load on bulkhead "" x 9. Da: force at bottom of stirfefter ""'!

Shear force in rivets - Mass of raft x 0. Mass of water displaced -- 1. Ql x A. ES 2 ! I3L 0. TPC fresh water - 0. S5 m Let S - wetted surface area of small ship 2S - wetted surface area of large ship b. I::MA 6 8. Disumce of centroid from mid. T1'C 4. Em I:i Common interval.. Om4 S 2 S IIS7. Vertical 1Il0meal '" 6. S ford ford S x 0. S x 12 x Free surface effect z t x 3. This rise is due to the effea of tbe suspended. Rise in centre of gravity. The dynamical stability of a ship to any given angle is represented by the area under the righting moment curve to that angle. Ne w KG,.

I' trimmir. If the drauah! Change in trim required. SA 50 SA 30 3. The mean drau! DispJacement dJfferencc 4. LCF a 0. CIfdinale SM.

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C - 1. ChanIe 10 tnm:. Changemmeandraught '" It has been convenient to consider this as a three-part qUeslion. Fig, T6. K is midships. Let ,. At 16 knots: time taken f:Y! Total fuel used - L15 - 20 "" 95 tonne At 15 knots; tOtal consumption for nautical miles ' "" 40 15 x For fast 8 hours: speed K J. PxNx IJ I. VT x T1 N2 T1 X 90 Torque T,..

Normal force on rud. Speed of ship V - 17 knots v.. A box baric is IS m 10DI, 6 m wide and floats in water of 1. Calculate the load exened by the water on tbe sides. A ship bas a load displacement of tonne and centre of gravity S. A ship of tonne displacemC'Dt floats in sea water of 1. The vessel moves into fresh water of 1. Calculate the chanar.

The wetted surface area of one ship is Je that of a similar ship. The displacement of the latter is tonne morc than the former. Calculate the displacement of the smaller ship. A ship of tonne displacement floats in fresh water of 1. The wuerplane area is m1. Cakulate the mass of car'O which must be added so that when tnterinl sea water of 1. The effective power of ship is kW at J2 knots.

Calculate the fuel required to travel nautical miles at 10 knots. A ship is 60 m long, 16 m beam and has adraughtof5 min sea water. Calculate the draught at which it will float in fresh water. SO III wide and 0. Tbe studs are pitched 30 mm outside the tine of bole aDd The cross-sectional area of tbe Muds buwca. After modification, 20 tonne has been added, Kg 3.

Cakuwe tbe new GM assuming constant waterplane area over the change in draught. Calculate the consumption per day if the displacement is increased to 13 tonne and the speed is increased to 17 knots. Within this speed. The 1- ordinates of a waterplane m long are 0, 9. A double bottom tank is filled with sea water to the tOp of the air pipe.

The pressure on the outer bottom is found to be 1. Calculate the height of the air pipe above tbe inner bottom and the depth of the tank. A ship m long and The waterplane area coefficient is 0. Calculate: a prismatic coefficient b TPC c change in mean draught if the vessel moves into river water of I. Calculate the real slip. A hopper baree of box form SO m lona: and JO m wide floats at. Doon in the bottom of the hopper are now opened allowing the mud to be discharged.

Calculate the new draulht. The rmaJ drauabt is to be 6. Two holds are available for additional caraa, one havina Kg 5 m and the other Kg 1 m. Calculate the mass of carlO to be added to each hold. A block of wood of unifonn density has a comtant cros. Y section in tbe form of a triangle. The width is 0. Jt floats at a drauaht of 0. CalcuJate the meu. The wue:rplane area of a ship at 8.

The areas of successive Calculate the displacement in fresh water at 8. S m wide. A ship with a drauaht of 5.

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S m is floated in. A ship of tonne displacement has its centre of Ifavit ' 6. Structural alterations are made. A ship of 15 tonne displacement floats at a draught of 7 m in water of tim'. It is required ,to load the maximum amount of oil to give the ship a draught of 7 m in sea water of t. If the waterplane area is m 2, calculate the mass of oil required. A bulkhead 12 m wide and 9 m high is secured at the base by an angle bar having 20 mm diameter rivets on a pitch of 80 mm..

The bulkhead is loaded on one side only to the top edge with sea water. Calculate the stress in the rivets. The t" ordinates of a waterplane 96 m long are 1. A rectangular double bottom tank with parallel sides is 7. Calculate the draught when the sounding in the tank is 0. It then travels upriver to a berth and the total change in draught is found to be 20 em. The densities of the harbour and berth water are respectively 1. Calculate the original displace. If, at 1. The length of a ship is 7. The block coefficient is 0. A ship m long.

A paral1el wetion 6 m Ions is added to tbe ship amidships. The midship sectional area coefficient is 0. Find the new displacement aod block coefficient. State wbat is meant by the Admiralty Coefficient and what its limitatioos are. A ship bas an Admiralty Coefficient of , a speed of 15 knots and shaft power leW. Calculate its displaccmem.

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