Electrical Power System Protection

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Actually circuit breaker isolates the faulty system from rest of the healthy system and these circuit breakers automatically open during fault condition due to its trip signal which comes from protection relay.

The main philosophy about protection is that no protection of power system can prevent the flow of fault current through the system, it only can prevent the continuation of flowing of fault current by quickly disconnect the short circuit path from the system. For satisfying this quick disconnection the protection relays should have following functional requirements.

1st Edition

In the picture the basic connection of protection relay has been shown. It is quite simple. The secondary of current transformer is connected to the current coil of relay and secondary of voltage transformer is connected to the voltage coil of the relay. Whenever any fault occurs in the feeder circuit, proportionate secondary current of the CT will flow through the current coil of the relay due to which mmf of that coil is increased. This increased mmf is sufficient to mechanically close the normally open contact of the relay.

Power system protection in a smartgrid perspective

This relay contact actually closes and completes the DC trip coil circuit and hence the trip coil is energized. The mmf of the trip coil initiates the mechanical movement of the tripping mechanism of the circuit breaker and ultimately the circuit breaker is tripped to isolate the fault. The most important requisite of protective relay is reliability. They remain inoperative for a long time before a fault occurs; but if a fault occurs, the relays must respond instantly and correctly.

Modern Power System Protective Relaying

The relay must be operated in only those conditions for which relays are commissioned in the electrical power system. There may be some typical condition during fault for which some relays should not be operated or operated after some definite time delay hence protection relay must be sufficiently capable to select appropriate condition for which it would be operated. The relaying equipment must be sufficiently sensitive so that it can be operated reliably when level of fault condition just crosses the predefined limit. The protective relays must operate at the required speed.

There must be a correct coordination provided in various power system protection relays in such a way that for fault at one portion of the system should not disturb other healthy portion. Fault current may flow through a part of healthy portion since they are electrically connected but relays associated with that healthy portion should not be operated faster than the relays of faulty portion otherwise undesired interruption of healthy system may occur.

Again if relay associated with faulty portion is not operated in proper time due to any defect in it or other reason, then only the next relay associated with the healthy portion of the system must be operated to isolate the fault. Hence it should neither be too slow which may result in damage to the equipment nor should it be too fast which may result in undesired operation.


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Content type: Original Research. Stochastic noises have a great adverse effect on the prediction accuracy of electric power load. Modeling online and filtering real-time can effectively improve measurement accuracy. Firstly, pretreating and i Content type: Original research. Maloperation of conventional relays is becoming prevalent due to ever increase in complexity of conventional power grids. They are dominant during power system contingencies like power swing, load encroachment Authors: B. Mallikarjuna, P. Vardhan Varma, S. Samir, M.

ECE Power System Protection and Relaying, Summer

Jaya Bharata Reddy and D. Dynamic behaviour of frequency is crucial for power system operation and control. Several frequency response models have been proposed to reveal frequency dynamics from different aspects. A comprehensive softw

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