In addition to this, it has five oral vowels and three nasal vowels. It is a structure-preserving language. Assiniboine has no definite or indefinite articles, no nominal case system, and no verbal tense marking. The verbal system is split into active and stative split-intransitive. The active object pronominal affixes coincide with the stative verbs of the subject pronominal affixes.
The affricates and stops of Assiniboine are often described as voiced rather than voiceless, due to intervocalic voicing rules which result in surface voiced forms. Syllables are primarily of CV structure. While codas are possible, they are restricted and uncommon, often becoming restructured as the onset of the following syllable. Onsets may include up to two consonants but codas must be simplex. Possible onset clusters are given in the following table: .
Morphological processes for Assiniboine language are primarily agglutinating. Examples from Levin Assiniboine is SOV word order.
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Elements order might be different from the canonical SOV, this is not free nor scrambling word order, but instead, the result of topicalization or other movements. Out of context sentences are always interpreted as SOV order even if it sounds odd. For example, 'the man bit the dog', unless an element is moved into a focus position. Focused element sentences are highly marked, and practically, a strange semantic reading is preferred over an interpretation of OSV.
For example, the following sentence was interpreted as 'A banana ate the boy' by a native speaker, and to get the OSV reading out of it the object must be stressed, for example if the sentence was given as a reply to the question 'What did the boy eat? More words can be found in the Dakota-English Dictionary . Assiniboine language, one of the Siouan languagesPlacesAssiniboine River, a river that runs through the prairies of Western Canada in Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Laurent-class destroyer, served OtherAssiniboine Herald, one of the heralds at the Canadian Heraldic Authority.
The reservation is in the Treaty 4 territory.
A code talker was a person employed by the military during wartime to utilize a little-known language as a means of secret communication. The term is now usually associated with United States service members during the world wars who used their knowledge of Native American languages as a basis to transmit coded messages.
In particular, there were approximately to Native Americans in the United States Marine Corps whose primary job was to transmit secret tactical messages. Code talkers transmitted messages over military telephone or radio communications nets using formally or informally developed codes built upon their native languages.
The code talkers improved the speed of encryption and decryption of communications in front line operations during World War II. There were two code types used during World War II. Type one codes were formally developed based on the languages of the Comanches, Hopies, Meskwakis, and Navajos. They used words from their languages for each letter of the English alphabet.
Messages could be encoded and decoded by using a simple substitution cipher where the ciphertext was the native language word. Type two code was informal and directly translated from English into the native language. If there was no word in the native language to describe a military word, code talkers used descriptive words.
For example, the Navajo did not have a word for submarine so they translated it to iron fish. The name code talkers is strongly associated with bilingual Navajo speakers specially recruited during World War II by the US Marine Corps to serve in their standard communications units of the Pacific theater. Crazy Bear — was an Indian chief of the Assiniboine tribes of the northern plains.
Crazy Bear has been recorded by these names and also in French as Ours Fou in various sketches and documents. The Cypress Hills are a geographical region of hills in southwestern Saskatchewan and southeastern Alberta, Canada. The highest point in the Cypress Hills is at Head of the Mountain in Alberta at 1, metres 4, ft. Gilbert Horn Sr. Horn, a member of the Merrill's Marauders during the war, utilized the Assiniboine language to encode communications by the U.
In , Horn was named an honorary chief by the Fort Belknap Assiniboine Tribe, becoming the first person to be awarded the title since the s. He was raised on the reservation and attended school in Dodson, Montana, until he completed 8th grade. Later in life, Horn had one child with his first wife, Elizabeth Bradley, and eleven children with his second wife, Elizabeth Jackson. Horn enlisted in the United States Army , when he was 17 years old, and was assigned to the rd Infantry Battalion.
He was trained in both Army communications and encryption. Horn, a code talker who spoke Assiniboine, an indigenous language of Montana, used his linguistic abilities to encrypt U. The [b] she records can only be phonetic because tautosyllabic triconsonantal clusters are disallowed in the language. Buechel lists o 0 as an independent sound, or letter, in his alphabet, although in his pronunciation guide he gives the same English word, soon, for both u 0 and o 0.
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Chambers, John K. Shaw Systematic Obfuscation of Morphology in Dakota. Linguistic Inquiry 11 2 : — International Journal of American Linguistics 14 3 — Cumberland, Linda A. DeMallie, Raymond J. In Handbook of North American Indians. DeMallie and William Sturtevant, — Denig, T. Edwin Assiniboine Vocabulary. Schoolcraft, Part 4, — Washington: Historical American Indian Press. Edited by J. Hewitt; introduction by David R. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press. International Journal of American Linguistics 60 3 — Langages — Dozier, Edward P.
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Assiniboine Language and the Assiniboine Indian Tribe (Nakota, Assiniboin, Hohe)
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Jacobsen, William H. Kays, Thomas A. The Colonial Newsletter — Edmonton: Duval House Pub. Landar, Herbert J.
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Anthropological Linguistics — Rankin Siouan Languages. DeMallie and William Sturtevant, 94— Washington: Smithsonian Institution. Rankin, Robert L. Dixon and Alexandra Aikhenvald, — Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Ray, Arthur J. Edited by James Owen Dorsey. Washington: Government Printing Office. Rosenthal, Jane M. International Journal of American Linguistics 51 4 — Roth, David D. Plains Anthropologist 20 68 : — Sage, Clark T.
Ottawa: Government Printing Bureau. Schilz, Thomas F. Montana: The Magazine of Western History 40 1 :2— Schudel, Emily K.
Scott, Gerald R. Senior honors thesis, Northern Illinois Uni- versity. Sharrock, Susan R. Ethnohistory 21 2 — Shaw, Patricia A. Phonology Yearbook 2 1 — Taylor, Allan R. Siouan and Caddoan Linguistics Newsletter, July — Napao: A Saskatchewan Anthropology Journal — Anthro- pological Linguistics 32 — Cleveland: Burrows Brothers.
Assiniboine Indian Language (Nakota, Assiniboin)
Voegelin, Charles F. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 97 5 — Whelan, Mary K. Ethno- history 40 2 — White, Bruce M. Ethnohistory 41 3 — Brown Marking-Reversals and Cultural Importance. Language 59 3 — Albuquer- que: University of New Mexico Press. Related Papers. By Vincent Collette.
Lexical affixation in Salish and Wakashan and its relevance for a theory of polysynthesis. Padua Working Papers in Linguistics By Alessio Muro. Routledge Dictionary of Language and Linguistics.